Hydrogen value chain project continues to develop

European Hydrogen Hub Efforts Focused

Dutch hydrogen support policy

The Climate Agreement is the Dutch government's climate response policy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 2030% in 1990 compared to 49. This agreement stipulates that the Netherlands must secure at least 2030 GW (gigawatts) of electrolysis capacity (a process for producing eco-friendly hydrogen) by 4. The Netherlands is targeting 2032 GW of electrolysis capacity by 8. The government wants to encourage greater use of renewable hydrogen by setting aside $90 billion in its climate fund budget.

To expand the hydrogen market, the government is subsidizing electrolysis production and use and has earmarked €2026 billion in a climate fund to mandate greater use of renewable hydrogen from 90. The Dutch government plans to pay an additional €2024 billion in 10 in addition to existing subsidies for electrolysis (e.g. SDE++ and IPCEI). SDE++ (The Sustainable Energy Production and Climate Transition Incentive Scheme) grants provide subsidies to companies and non-profit organizations that produce renewable energy or reduce carbon dioxide emissions on a large scale. In addition, IPCEI (Important Project of Common European Interest) is an abbreviation for 'Important Project of Common European Interest'. IPCEI subsidies are approved by the EU Commission, but the funds themselves are raised by participating member states. In the case of the Netherlands, the IPCEI hydrogen subsidy budget of 16 billion euros is procured from the Dutch government.

The 'Energy Main Structure Program (PEH)' is a Dutch program that presents a vision for the Netherlands' national energy infrastructure by 2050. This program will designate sites for electrolyzers (hydrogen plants) in the Netherlands.

The ‘Match & Connect Platform’ is an initiative to increase flexibility in the hydrogen market. This platform was launched by Gasunie in May 2023 after a successful pilot operation. Match & Connect easily connects market parties operating on both supply and demand sides and can be used by anyone, anywhere in the world, from hydrogen producers to large-scale consumers requiring large quantities of hydrogen to increase sustainability. For example, market parties can contact each other through Match & Connect when supply and demand ‘match’. Registration is simple and allows you to add relevant project information to your account. The website lists various supply and demand projects scheduled for the next few years, and interested parties can register projects, check supply and demand, and match and connect with parties.

  Related links: https://www.gasunie-match-connect.nl/en/

Projects of interest to the Dutch government

The Dutch government announced that the MIEK project is key to the Netherlands' future energy supply. MIEK Netherlands stands for 'The Netherlands' Meerjarenprogramma Infrastructuur Energie en Klimaat', which translates to the Program Infrastructure Energy and Climate, which aims to accelerate the decision-making process for important energy and raw material infrastructure projects to support the Netherlands' sustainability goals. Do this. The program includes 14 projects that are critical to achieving climate goals, three of which are National Hydrogen Infrastructure, Import and Transit terminalhydrogen Rotterdam-Moerdijk , Hydrogen Terminal North sea canal zone) is a project related to hydrogen.

1) National Hydrogen Infrastructure

  – Period: 2023~2030

  – Participant: Hi Network (Gas Uni subsidiary)

  – Location: Throughout the Netherlands

Hynetwork, a Gasunie subsidiary, is building a national hydrogen network, the foundation of hydrogen infrastructure. Construction of the 2023 km hydrogen pipeline officially began in October 1,200, and the first 30 km section in Rotterdam is scheduled to begin operation in 2025. Over the next few years, GasUni will continue to build a hydrogen network, connecting Dutch ports with major industrial clusters in neighboring countries.

First, the goal is to connect five industrial clusters (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Zeeland, Groningen, and Limburg (Chemelot)) by 2030. Approximately 5% of the existing natural gas pipelines will be reused for hydrogen, and the remainder will be composed of new pipelines, making the total length approximately 85 km. Meanwhile, reuse of existing natural gas pipelines is scheduled to become available from 1,183.

According to Maarten, director of North Sea Port, the installation of Hinetwork's national hydrogen network will increase sustainability by supplying hydrogen to Dutch industry. Also, “North Sea Port emits a significant amount of carbon dioxide. We have been working for several years to reduce these emissions and make our raw materials more sustainable. To this end, we have built new infrastructure in cooperation with operators such as Gas Uni. “We are also encouraging the entry of new companies that can contribute to sustainability.”

2) Import and Transit terminal hydrogen Rotterdam – Moerdijk

Work is underway to build a terminal for hydrogen import and transport in the Rotterdam-Moerdijk area. The first terminal is scheduled to become operational in 2024 and will initially be located in the Rotterdam-Mördix cluster, transporting via inland transport. The goal is to connect the national hydrogen infrastructure and the Delta Corridor*.

  Note*: Delta Corridor refers to a large-scale infrastructure project connecting major industrial areas in the Netherlands and Germany.

3) Hydrogen Terminal North sea canal zone

The North Sea Canal Zone (NZKG) is part of the Metropolitan Region Amsterdam and includes the area from Ijmuiden to the Port of Amsterdam. Near the area are steel producer Tata Steel and Schiphol Airport. In order to supply sufficient hydrogen to the North Sea Canal Zone in the future, a consortium comprised of several organizations is working to realize a hydrogen import terminal.

4) IPCEI (Important Project of Common European Interest)

IPCEI stands for Important Projects of Common European Interest and is an initiative launched by the European Commission to support large-scale projects. IPCEI Hydrogen focuses on the development and deployment of hydrogen technologies across the entire hydrogen value chain, from production and storage to transportation and applications. In December 2020, 22 EU countries and Norway signed a declaration committing to lay the foundation for a clean hydrogen value chain and launch an IPCEI in the hydrogen sector. IPCEI subsidies are approved by the European Commission, but the funds themselves are raised by participating member states.

In 2022, seven large hydrogen projects in the Netherlands will receive water electricity subsidies worth about 7 million euros. Companies that received subsidies include Rotterdam Hydrogen Company BV (Shell), H8ermes BV, Air Liquide Industries BV, HyCC/H2-Fifty BV, Ørsted Hydrogen Netherlands Holding BV, and ENG Energy Netherlands NV. These companies use renewable hydrogen to sustainably produce steel, which can then be used in oil refineries or fertilizer production. If all projects are realized as planned, these companies will be able to produce hydrogen through a total of 2 MW of electrolysis capacity, which is more than a quarter of the climate agreement's 1,150 target.

Project in the Netherlands

1) H-vision(blueHydrogen Project)

  – Period: 2018~2025

  – Location: Rotterdam-Moerdijk

  – Participants: AirLiquide, BP, ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, Vopak, Port of Rotterdam, Deltalinqs

H-vision, in partnership with Rotterdam industry, seeks to quickly achieve large-scale carbon dioxide reduction through blue hydrogen. The basic process is to convert hydrocarbon process gases into hydrogen on a large scale, and companies such as BP, Shell and ExxonMobil want to produce blue hydrogen on a large scale. H-vision focuses on producing decarbonized hydrogen from refinery residual gases and capturing and storing associated carbon dioxide emissions, and also includes plans to build a large-scale hydrogen plant in the Maasvlakte region.

2) Aramis (Aramis Project)

  – Period: 2019~2029

  – Location: Maasvlakte, Rotterdam

  – Participants: Energie Beheer Nederland (EBN), Gasunie, TotalEnergies, Shell

The Aramis project aims to contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions from industries where carbon dioxide reduction is difficult, and stores carbon dioxide in depleted offshore gas fields deep in the North Sea. Located in Maasvlacte in the Port of Rotterdam, the project will enable carbon dioxide transport and storage services to be used by various industrial clusters.

On December 2022, 2, the Dutch government added the Aramis project to the Energy and Climate Infrastructure Program (Meerjarenprogramma Infrastructuur Energie en Klimaat – MIEK). This means that the Aramis project has been designated as a project of national importance. The final investment decision will be made in 2025-2026, and the project will begin in 2028-2029. After 2030, the project is expected to start with an annual storage capacity of 500 million tons of CO₂ and expand to 2200 million tons per year. .


3) ACE terminal(Eco Hydrogen carrier ammonia income terminal)

  – Period: 2021~2026

  – Location: Rotterdam, Maasvlakte

  – Participants: Gasunie, HES International, Vopak

In the Port of Rotterdam, three strategic partners (Gasunie, HES Internationall and Vopak) plan to develop a terminal for hydrogen imports in Maasvlakte, a strategic location with direct access to the North Sea, with completion scheduled for 2026. did. Available to all businesses, this hydrogen terminal provides the ability to convert ammonia to hydrogen, transship ammonia, and further transport ammonia and hydrogen to end users.

4) Porthos

  – Period: 2024~2026

  – Location: Rotterdam-Moerdijk

  – Participants: HBR (Port of Rotterdam), Gasunie and EBN (Energie Beheer Nederland)

The Portos Project is a project to build major infrastructure to transport carbon dioxide and store it in depleted gas fields in the North Sea, and is very important in drastically reducing carbon dioxide emissions from industry in the short term. The goal is to develop a project to transport and store carbon dioxide generated by Rotterdam port industry in an empty gas field under the North Sea.

In this project, carbon dioxide is transported from a platform to an empty gas field. In June 2021, the Dutch government secured €6 billion in SDE++ subsidies over the next 15 years for project customers Air Liquide, Air Products, ExxonMobil and Shell. The final investment decision for Porthos was made in October 21, construction of Porthos infrastructure will begin in 2023, and the system is scheduled to be operational in 2024.

The companies will discharge carbon dioxide into an integrated pipeline passing through the Rotterdam port area, where the supplied carbon dioxide will be pressurized at a compressor station and then transported via an offshore pipeline to a platform in the North Sea about 20 km off the coast. From this platform, carbon dioxide is transported to empty gas fields. For reference, the empty gas field is located in a sealed reservoir made of porous sandstone more than 3 km away from the North Sea.

Porthos is expected to store approximately 15 Mton of carbon dioxide per year for 2.5 years, or a total of approximately 37 Mton, making it the Netherlands' first large-scale carbon dioxide transportation and storage project. The EU also recognized Porthos as an important project for achieving climate goals, designating it as a project of common interest and providing a subsidy of 1 million euros for the project.

5) Project Puffin (LOHC) Technology-based hydrogen supply chain)

The Puffin Hydrogen Project is a joint venture between Vopak and Hydrogenious LOHC Technologies that aims to develop a large-scale supply chain for green hydrogen based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) technology.

LOHC technology is a method of storing and transporting hydrogen. It works by chemically absorbing and releasing hydrogen. Puffin is a key driver of LOHC-based large-scale hydrogen storage and transportation, contributing significantly to increasing the flexibility of future energy. In addition, this project aims to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 4 kt (kiloton) per year during the operation period and reduce CO₂ emissions as defined by the Netherlands and the EU. The Puffin Hydrogen Project is expected to be completed in 2025, and if successful, it is expected to lay the foundation for widespread adoption of LOHC technology.


6) PosyHydon (world’s first offshore hydrogen platform)

  – Period: 2019~2024

  – Location: North Sea

  – Participants: Nel Hydrogen, InVesta, Hatenboer, Iv-Offshore & Energy, Emerson Automation Solutions, NexStep, TNO, Neptune Energy, Gasunie, Noordgastransport(NGT), NOGAT, DEME Offshore, TAQA, Eneco

Pilot PosHYdon is an example of system* integration in the North Sea, producing the world's first green hydrogen on an offshore platform.

  Note*: Three energy systems: offshore wind power, offshore gas, and green hydrogen.


7) Underground Energy Storage Zuidwending[Underground energy 저장(Hydrogen And natural gas)]

  – Period: 2022~2030

  – Location: Zuidwending (Groningen)

  – Participant: Hystock (hystock.nl)

Hystock (subsidiary Gasunie) is working on the first hydrogen storage cavern, central hydrogen plant and connection to the Northern Hydrogen Network by 2028. Construction of ground facilities and preparations for hydrogen storage will begin as soon as the necessary permits are obtained by 2026.

Netherlands-based Hystock has been working to develop large-scale underground hydrogen storage facilities in recent years. Because the supply and demand for hydrogen is not constant, large-scale underground hydrogen storage is needed. That is why Hystock is developing caves for hydrogen storage at Zuidwending, near Veendam. A feasibility study was conducted in 2020 and, after a series of tests, concluded in 2023 that hydrogen storage in caves was safe. The first cave (A5) will have its final shape and size in 2023.

Construction of above-ground facilities and preparations for hydrogen storage are scheduled to begin as soon as the necessary permits are obtained in 2025-2026. If all goes as planned, the first hydrogen cave will be operational in 2028, and the remaining three caves will be operational after 2030 in line with the growth of the renewable hydrogen market. Is expected.

8) NorthH2

  – Period: 2020-2030 (subsequent stages until 2040)

  – Location: Eemshave and transport networks in the North Sea, Northern Europe and North-Western Europe

  – Participants: Equinor, Gasunie, Groningen Seaports, RWE and Shell consortium

이 프로젝트는 유럽에서 가장 큰 그린수소 프로젝트 중 하나로 꼽힌다. 대규모 해상 풍력 발전 단지에서 생산된 재생 가능한 전기를 사용해 그린 수소를 생산하는 데 중점을 두고 있다. 네덜란드 기후 협약의 목표 달성에 기여하기 위해 2030년까지 4GW의 그린 수소를 생산하는 것이 목표이다. 이후 이 프로젝트는 2040년까지 그린 수소 생산량을 10GW 이상으로 확대할 계획이다. 그때까지 처음에는 에에임스하븐(Eemshaven) 생산되고 추후 해상에서도 생산될 그린수소 생산량은 연간 약 100만 톤이 될 것이며, 이는 연간 8~10메가톤의 탄소 배출을 줄일 수 있는 양이다.

9) carbon capture And carbon dioxide process 시설 build

  – Period: 2023~2026

  – Location: Rotterdam

  – Participant: Air Products

Air Products will build, own and operate a carbon capture and carbon dioxide treatment facility at the existing hydrogen production plant in Rotterdam. This facility is scheduled to be operational in 2026, and is expected to become the largest blue hydrogen plant in Europe once it begins operation. This plant will be connected to the Porthos system, and the captured carbon dioxide will be transported to a depleted gas field in the North Sea and permanently stored at a depth of more than 3 km under the sea. Thanks to Portos, Air Products was able to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the Port of Rotterdam by more than half.

10) H2Gateway Hydrogen factory


The H2Gateway Consortium has unveiled plans to build a hydrogen plant. The H2Gateway Consortium is a coalition of companies and organizations focused on hydrogen production, storage, transportation, and utilization. Its main goal is to provide sustainable energy solutions and reduce carbon emissions through the development and expansion of hydrogen infrastructure.

The plan focuses on building a blue hydrogen plant in the Den Helder* region. H2Gateway is an initiative to build a plant capable of producing 0.2 megatons of industrial blue hydrogen per year. The construction aims to supply hydrogen as a raw material and for high-temperature thermal use to industrial clusters in the Netherlands and Germany through the National Hydrogen Network. It is scheduled to start at the end of 2027.

  Note*: Den Helder is strategically positioned in the blue hydrogen value chain due to its carbon dioxide storage capacity in the North Sea and its connectivity to existing gas infrastructure. The Port of Den Helder is also collaborating with the Ports of Amsterdam and Groningen at Hydroports to contribute to optimizing infrastructure for the hydrogen economy.

11) EnekoDiamondHeizen(Eneco Diamond Hydrogen), Hydrogen Produce factory erection 계획

Japan-based Mitsubishi Corporation plans to establish the world's largest green hydrogen production plant, Eneco Electrolyzer, in the Netherlands. Located at Europort in Rotterdam, the project will promote the development of green hydrogen and related renewable energy projects in Europe. Leading the project is Eneco Diamond Hydrogen, a new joint venture between Mitsubishi and its Rotterdam-based subsidiary Eneco.

유로포트의 에네코젠 발전소 옆에 건설될 예정인 에네코 일렉트로라이저는 두 시설이 일부 인프라를 공유해 에너지 사용과 생산 효율을 최적화할 수 있도록 할 것이다. 이 개발은 2030년까지 2.5GW의 수소 생산 목표를 달성하기 위한 전략의 핵심 부분으로, Eneco는 이미 이 프로젝트에 필요한 건설 허가를 신청한 상태로 2026년에 전기분해 공장 건설을 시작해 2029년에 수소를 생산할 계획이다. 연간 8만 톤의 생산 능력을 갖춘 이 공장은 현재 운영 중인 세계 최대 규모의 시설보다 30배 가까이 큰 규모이다.

12) Shellof Hydrogen factory(Hydrogen factory)

  – Period: 2022~2025

  – Location: Maasvlakte 2, Rotterdam

  – Participants: More than 150 companies

Shell is building the first Dutch hydrogen plant, Europe's largest renewable hydrogen production facility, in the Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands. The Netherlands' first 'green' hydrogen plant (Dutch Hydrogen 1) will be built on the last fallow land in Maasvlacte 1 in the port area of ​​Rotterdam. This plant, scheduled to be completed in 2, is the largest water electrolysis facility to date with a capacity of 2025 MW. Shell expects that the plant will be able to produce about 200 tons of hydrogen by investing about 10 billion euros. The plant uses water to convert electricity produced by the Hollande Kust Noord wind farm into gaseous hydrogen. Hollandse Kust Noord is owned by a consortium called Crosswind, made up of Shell and Eneco.

Shell will initially use hydrogen to make the production process at its refinery in Pernis, a municipality of Rotterdam, environmentally friendly. Shell said it was looking forward to new investments in hydrogen going forward, which it said would mark a significant milestone for the company. According to Shell, the plant currently under construction is 20 times larger than the plant already in Germany, and will continue to expand with a plant in Eemshaven, Groningen, which will be 20 times larger than the plant in Rotterdam. It's called a plan. The project also received a grant of €1 million from the IPCEI grant scheme.

13) High Netherlands(HYNL)

  – Period: 2019~2025

  – Location: Northern Netherlands

  – Participant: Engie

이 프로젝트는 Engie(엔지)가 소유하고 있으며 3단계로 구성돼 있다. 엔지의 수소 생산 시설은 흐로닝언시에서 북동쪽으로 30㎞ 떨어진 독일 국경과 가까운 엠스하펜의 엠스 발전소 부지에 위치할 예정이다. 재생 수소는 현장의 튜브 트레일러(예: 모빌리티용)에 공급될 수 있으며, 가스유니의 자회사인 HyNetwork Services가 운영할 기존 가스 네트워크를 기반으로 주요 수소 네트워크에 연결될 예정이다. 1단계는 2026년까지 100㎿ 규모의 수전해 설비를 완공하고, 2단계는 2030년까지 400~800㎿, 3단계는 2035년까지 1.5~1.85GW 규모의 수전해 설비를 완공할 예정이다.

14) Hydrogen Valley(H2 Energy Applications (in) Valley Environments (for) Northern Netherlands, HEAVENN)


The Hydrogen Valley is planned across Eemshaven, Delfzijl, Zuidwending, Emmen, Hoogeveen, and Groningen in the northern Netherlands and is a place that will work across Europe and the rest of the world to integrate the production, distribution, storage, and consumption of hydrogen. It covers overall integration from the production of green hydrogen as a raw material to its storage, transportation, distribution, and function as an energy source. It is the first in Europe to be approved by the EU Commision's Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH-JU). It is a subsidized hydrogen valley, with a total scale of 2000 million euros, including 7000 million euros in subsidies and 9000 million euros in public-private joint funds. Project participants consist of 6 public and private sector organizations from six European countries.

<Other projects>

[Source: Amsterdam Trade Center self-organized]




In the Netherlands, approximately 100 billion ㎥ of hydrogen is produced annually. Of these, 80% are made from natural gas (gray hydrogen) and emit approximately 1300 million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The remaining 20% ​​of hydrogen is made as a by-product in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used as a raw material for chemicals in the Netherlands. Most of it is used to make ammonia (37%), and ammonia is used to make fertilizers, etc. Hydrogen can be used in oil refining and as a fuel for hydrogen cars, but this is still being done on a small scale. ‘Ten Norden van der Waardeneiranden’, an offshore wind power area located 56km off the northern coast of the Netherlands, has been designated for large-scale offshore hydrogen production. This priority area could provide up to 2031 MW of electrolysis capacity, operational in 500, making it the world's largest offshore hydrogen production site.

Regarding hydrogen storage, there are many empty gas fields in the North Sea that can store hydrogen. When energy demand is high, this hydrogen can be brought onshore through existing gas pipelines. The Netherlands is researching the most powerful and cheapest way to transport electricity generated at sea in the form of molecular hydrogen to major users. In addition, the Netherlands has been transporting gas through the world's most reliable and safe natural gas network for decades, and Gasunie in particular has a long history of installing and operating natural gas pipelines and transporting natural gas. there is. Over the next few years, GasUni will build on this knowledge and expertise to build a Dutch national hydrogen network. In addition, the Netherlands holds a leading position in the charging and utilization sector. The Netherlands is constantly developing and executing projects in the hydrogen value chain, which encompasses hydrogen production, storage, transportation, charging, and utilization.

Author: Amsterdam Trade Center Betul Bulut

Source: gasunie.nl, groningerhuis.nl, rvo.nl, gasunie-match-connect.nl, open.overheid.nl, hystock.nl, nos.nl, portofrotterdam.com, portofamsterdam.com, porthosco2.nl, etc. KOTRA Amsterdam Comprehensive trade center data

Source: KOTRA